Q 1

Transmission and Driveline Engineering

Control Systems Engineering

Development Engineering

Development tools



Transmission and Driveline Engineering

DSD provides an experienced team to steer your new product from first initial idea through to production. Your company may require a new gearbox, transfer box or axle design once every decade: we have completed a dozen in the last year. We understand the wider, vehicle level issues that influence transmission design, such as engine downsizing and hybridisation.

For customers who only require a solution to a specific problem, DSD is able to work as a specialist partner or to supplement your in-house capability, contributing its expertise seamlessly as part of a multi-disciplinary team.

Simulation and Analysis

Efficient engineering at DSD begins with reliable simulation techniques that allow sensitivity analysis in key areas to rank design options long before investing time in detailed CAD models.

DSD uses MASTA simulation software, FEA (including contact analysis) and MATLAB SIMULINK (for torsional systems, selectors, clutches and synchronisers). Our DOE (Design of Experiments) methods provide solutions optimised for each customer’s manufacturing tolerances, not just the nominal component dimensions.

Mechanical Engineering

DSD’s experienced engineers use most of the industry-standard CAD systems, including CATIA, Unigraphics, Pro-E and Inventor (Autodesk). The company’s expertise spans a wide range of industries, manufacturing volumes and torque ratings: it has engineered systems for torque values from 17000Nm down to 0.1Nm.

The company  works on manual, automatic (planetary auto and automated manuals), Automated Manual Transmissions (AMT), Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCT), Continuously Variable Transmissions (CVT) and hybrid transmissions, Power Takeoff Units (PTU), transfer boxes, axles and differentials, and engine gears, such as balancer drives and timing gears.

Shift Systems and Shift Devices

Gear shifting, whether manual or automatic, is the first area where a driver will gain a tangible impression of transmission quality in their vehicle. DSD’s experience of shift system engineering includes actuation systems, hydraulics, electric and manual operation. It is a critical touch point and makes a significant contribution to the perceived quality of not just the transmission, but the whole vehicle.

Through objective measurement, a focus on kinematic analysis and the use of DSD’s proprietary gear shift quality measurement tool, GATE, it engineers shift systems to suit the customers particular vehicle, improving the drivers overall experience.



Components of driveline system:

Driveshaft: it is a component mechanically builds in order to transmit torque. It is generally used to connect components of a drive train which cannot be connected directly. It is so because of the distance.

Clutch: This is a device which provides for the transmission of power from one module to another. The other module of the clutch is the brake. Clutch is used when the power of the transmission is to be controlled. It is employed with two rotating shafts. One shaft is attached to a power unit and the other provides output power.

Gearbox: it is responsible in order to provide torque or speed to a device under gear ratio from arotating power source. In vehicles a gearbox is connected to the crankshaft of the engine. The output of the gearbox is transferred through driveshaft which in order rotates the wheel.

Driving wheel: A turbine or a locomotive’s pistons drive the driving wheel. It is made of side rods coupling rods. Generally one rod straightly driven by the main rod and it is connected at the end of the piston rod. It is via the side rods, power is transmitted to the others.

Axle: It is a main shaft for a gear. The axle is fixed to the wheels which rotates with them or fixed to the surrounding. Before bearing and bushings are provided at the mounting points where the axle is provided and today it resides under the hole of the wheel. The shaft rotates with the wheel.

Identifying and confirming the work requirement: the nature and objectives of the analysis and evaluation requirements are determined by the work instructions and reports used. Correct functioning of light vehicle driveline is accessed and interpreted. Throughout the work, equipments and social isolation requirements and personal protection needs are observed. Safety impacts of the work are responded according to the obligations and practices.

Dianne Christensen-Herman, Transmission and driveline troubleshoot, January 2011

Prepare for analysis and examination: examination procedure is made to meet the motive of the work. Analyzed information on board diagnostic systems is used to identify system performance achievement. To select from the available quantity of choice, diagnostic process, sequence. Tests and testing equipments are made. Important tools and materials are found out in order to support the diagnostic process and are also prepared to use. The components required for the driveline system are prepared which include park-up, isolation and cleaning.

Implementing the methodology: the diagnostic course is to be followed with authorized methods and directions. Testing equipments are applied according to the requirements. Various findings found are analyzed and verified by using various processes. The results of the findings are fully examined according to the criteria. Valid and meaningful conclusions are made out of the available findings.

Selecting response measure: materials which can be used again are collected and stored for further use. The testing equipments are preserved and taken care of for further use and the waste materials which are not required are put aside or removed from the place of work. According to the workplace procedure, the area and the equipments are cleaned and also inspected.

Failure analysis and evaluation criteria are determined in order to rectify the faults and to effect variation in system characteristic. Light vehicles include both two wheelers and four wheelers. Driveline system consists of components like clutch, torque converter, manual transmission, automatic transmission drive shaft and final shaft. Module parts replacement and parts replacement is covered by the diagnostic. Driveline system faults includes abnormal gear wear, abnormal clutch operation, contamination, hard shifting, loose mounting etc.

Testing equipments: testing equipments consists of systems like compound level, pressure gauge, millimeters, tachometers, and computerized diagnostic system. Tests are needed to conduct. Various tests included are lubricant inspection, pressure, road testing, sensor integrity and function, solenoid operation, wiring and power control ECU integrity.

Information and procedure:

Procedures of the work place are to be regulated in order to use the tooling and equipment.

Procedures are to be followed for reporting and communication.

Component specifications are to be analyzed for testing equipment and material.

The design rules ro be followed must be the Australian design.

The regulation of the vehicle industry is to be evaluated and regulated.

When a constant nature of excitation is transmitted from the engine, the torsion response at various points is to be remained the same under various trails. A variation from the baseline response data is observed due to various minor cracks developed along the driveline.

Clutch fault finding:

When the clutch cable is broken.

When the adjustment in the clutch cable is found incorrect, it is a symptom of clutch faults.

Another symptom is that of releasing bearing of a broken clutch

Faults also contains such as wrong adjustment of the clutch cable.

Excessive clutch silk lining, contaminated clutch disc lining, faulty pressure plate are some other faults

Diagnose and Rectify Motor Vehicle And Transmission and Driveline System Faults

Gear faults:

Liquid leakage: in automotive transmission the color of the liquid is usually deep red. These fluids should not be confused with the main fuel which can easily be transferred to the transmission area via air. Removing the built up dirt is firstly necessary from the transmission area using steam cleaning.

Burned smell: it occurs when the engine is turned on at neutral transmission and also when the vehicle moves in neutral format.

Driving wheels fault:

There can be loose steering gear adjustments. It is than required to be adjusted to its specifications.

It can also happen due to steering gear mounting loosen and the remedy for it is tightening of steering gear bolts

The steering may sometimes be felt hard to be rotated especially it is observed in power steering and the reason behind is may be due to low tire pressure.

Sometimes the wheel bearing may also be loose which must be replaced with the new ones.

Drive shaft faults:

Worn u-joints slip joint wear, or a faulty center support bearing are mostly the reasons for the noise found in drive shaft. Also grinding from the driveshaft may be caused by worn universal joints. The joint ends up being dry, causing the rollers to wear.

Axle fault:

It includes improper pinion bearing

It also includes excessive gear tooth backlash variation

Another fault is the pitch lineout run out

And also cocked pinion bearing is a major fault.

Homer Rahnejat, Steve Rothberg, multi-body dynamics-monitoring and stimulation techniques.




Power Steering system includes both the normal Hydraulic system used for many years now to make steering your car easier, as well as a Power Steering Assist system that augments the regular power steering. If a problem develops with the Power Steering Assist system, it will be deactivated. The most likely cause of steering failure is a loss of power steering. This can happen if a hydraulic pipe breaks or is cut by debris from the road. Even in this eventuality, it is unlikely that the power loss would be sudden. It is probable that the steering would gradually become heavier, thus giving a warning.

Three example of symptom associated with the steering system faults 

Difficulty in turning the wheel: Check to see if the fluid reservoir is full

Steering wheel vibration: While this is often an indication of wheel alignment problems, steering wheel vibration can also indicate a problem with the power steering.  A power steering flush would normally fix this problem.

Steering wheel slips when you attempt to turn it or hold it in a turned position: This is another sign that the power steering is failing. Other causes of power steering failure apart from leakage include faulty pumps, worn steering rack mounts and loose or worn steering belts.

Looseness in steering wheel: This is usually caused by worn steering racks and tie rods


Suspension issues can be difficult to diagnose. It is usually easy to tell the symptoms, but identifying the source of the issue is another problem. Faulty or worn shocks, struts, springs, tie rods or ball joints can wreak havoc on your vehicle and make your car or truck unsafe to drive.

Wear and tear is only an issue if you actively ignore the problem and allow your vehicle to run itself into the ground! Pay attention to how your vehicle handles and what you are hearing—and address problems immediately as they arise.

Three example of symptom associated with the suspension system faults are:

Poor wheel alignment:The wheels have to be pointed in the right direction (literally) and aligned for toe-in, camber and caster. If they are not, your steering will not be centered when you are going straight and tire wear will increase. Wheels are knocked out of alignment by potholes and curbs, but getting the wheels aligned will not fix damaged springs, controls arms or other parts that affect alignment. When you buy new tires, it is a good idea to have the alignment checked so suspension issues do not shorten tread life.

Shock absorbers:They really should be called “dampers,” and when they wear out, you should notice more bouncing after a bump and a whole lot of shaking going on over rough roads because they cannot keep the tires planted on the pavement. Shocks contain fluid that dampens the bouncing, and once they start to leak, performance will deteriorate.

Springs:These are what hold the weight of the car, and as they wear, they can sag or break. If your car is on level ground but one corner is, lower than the others that is a sign of a damaged spring. You can measure the height of the corners to confirm your visual cue. You might also hear clunking noises over bumps, and the car may not corner with confidence because a damaged spring cannot control the weight it’s supporting.

Q 5.

There are three steps used to manage health and safety at work.

  1. Spot the Hazard (Hazard Identification): A hazard is anything that could hurt you or someone else.

       Examples of workplace hazards include:

  • frayed electrical cords (could result in electrical shock)
  • boxes stacked precariously (they could fall on someone)
  • noisy machinery (could result in damage to your hearing)


  1. Assess the Risk (Risk Assessment):Assessing the risk means working out how likely it is that a hazard will harm someone and how serious the harm could be.

3. Make the Changes (Risk Control):It is your employer's responsibility to fix hazards. Sometimes you may be able to fix simple hazards yourself, as long as you don't put yourself or others at risk. For example, you can pick up things from the floor and put them away to eliminate a trip hazard.

Q 6

The five evaluation criteria to assess faulty steering system are:

  • Operating Principles:At its most basic level, the steering system’s power steering pump can generate up to 2,000 psi of hydraulic pressure. This hydraulic pressure is metered to a steering assist cylinder through a steering gear pressure control valve. On modern vehicles, both the cylinder and valve are integral to the steering gear assembly.
  • The ‘Systems’ Approach: When assessing a power steering complaint, it’s ­important to consider the complete system. If, for ­example, the steering pump is worn out, the system hydraulics will likely be full of metallic particles. Worn steering hoses can similarly shed material into the oil stream, which can cause steering-assist complaints due to clogging of the steering control valve ports.
  • The ‘Dry-Park’ Performance Test: A dry park test is performed with the transmission in “park” and the front wheels on the ground. After starting the engine, check for a “bump” or movement in the steering wheel as the engine starts. Stand outside the vehicle and rock the steering wheel. If there is excess play or if you hear knocking noises, the power steering system needs attention.
  • Steering Pump Inspections: Always begin by checking the power steering fluid level because the steering pump is the heart of the power steering system. If the level is low, we could assume that the system is leaking fluid.Normal color is red or straw-colored. Blackened fluid might indicate that the hoses are ­deteriorating or that the power steering pump itself is worn. If the fluid appears extremely viscous, the fluid might have been contaminated with motor oil or other lubricant. If the fluid has an odd odor, it’s possible that an inexperienced technician has added brake fluid to the reservoir. In any case, if the fluid appears contaminated, the system needs a thorough flushing with the specified fluid.
  • Rack And Pinion Inspections:If a clicking noise is heard, the inner tie rod end is probably worn where it connects to the steering rack. While we are looking at the steering rack, check for external oil leakage at the boots and feel the boot to see if it is filled with oil. Always squeeze steering rack boots to see if they are filled with oil. Boots that are torn should be ­immediately ­replaced.

Q 7

  • Car rides roughly:Most people can tell their shocks or struts are wearing out when they begin to feel every bump in the road, or when every bump causes the vehicle body to "bounce." A rough ride is an obvious sign that your vehicle's suspension needs work.
  • Drifting or pulling during turns: With a failing suspension system, you will often feel the vehicle "drift" or "pull" when you are turning. This means the shocks are no longer keeping the vehicle body stable against the centrifugal force of a turn, increasing your risk of a rollover. If you feel this sensation while turning, it is time to take the car to a trusted auto repair shop for servicing.
  • Uneven tire treads: If the tread is wearing down unevenly on the tires, or if you notice balding spots, this is often a symptom that the suspension is not holding the car evenly, and therefore putting uneven amounts of pressure on the tires.
  • Damaged, "oily" shocks: If you can look under the vehicle, take a look directly at the shocks or struts. If they look greasy or oily, there is a good chance that they are leaking fluid and therefore are not working properly. It is probably time to get those shocks replaced.
  • Try bounce test: If there is  suspect regarding suspension is going bad with the car in "park," press down on the front of the vehicle with all your weight, "bounce" it a few times, then release. Do it again on the rear of the vehicle. If the car continues to rock or bounce more than 2-3 times after you release it, the suspension is wearing out.


Q 8.

The various steps that must be followed in analyzing and evaluating the fault within the steering and suspension system of the light vehicle are:

a) Pay attention if your ride begins to feel rougher: The easiest way to determine if you are having a suspension issue is by paying attention to how the ride in your vehicle feels. If it has become progressively rougher, it is likely because the suspension is no longer absorbing the bumps the way it is supposed to.

  • If you begin to feel more bumps and shakes as you drive, there may be an issue with your suspension.
  • Sometimes a rougher ride will come coupled with audible squeaks as the suspension struggles to manage bumps in the road.

 b) Take note if your vehicle pulls or squeaks during turns:  Different parts of your suspension can affect the steering response, angle of the tires, and the center of balance of the vehicle. Each of these elements can make your vehicle cumbersome or difficult to turn.

Conversely, if you hear knocking as the weight transfers in the vehicle during a turn, it may be caused by a bad sway bar end link.[2]

  • Pay attention to how the vehicle reacts as you turn and compare it to your previous experiences in the vehicle to assess if there is an issue.
  • Listen carefully to see if components of your suspension are squeaking under pressure.
  • Every vehicle behaves a little differently while turning, so previous experiences with the vehicle can make assessing issues much easier.

c) Inspect the tread wear on your tires: Your tires should wear evenly across the width of the tread. If you rotate your tires regularly, they should be worn close to evenly throughout.If you happen to notice the inside or outside of the tire is wearing at  a faster rate than the rest, it could be an issue with the camber of your wheels and tires.

  • A vehicle with negative camber will wear the inside of the tires more quickly.
  • A vehicle with positive camber will wear the outsides of the tires more quickly.
  • Camber is determined by your suspension components and wheel alignment.

d) Try braking abruptly to see if the nose dives as you stop:If you are having issues with your front struts or shocks, your suspension may struggle to keep the vehicle level under hard braking.  Stop quickly in a safe area and pay attention to the front of your car.

Q 9.

The steering and suspension systems are key safety-related systems that largely determine your car’s ride and handling. Have these systems checked regularly, at least once a year and usually with a wheel alignment.Acoustic quality, vehicle dynamics and stability, and driver comfort play an increasingly important role in the development of new chassis and suspension systems – both passive and active. Noises in suspension components can cause customer dissatisfaction and lead to high warranty costs and are difficult to diagnose especially on historically-used, noisy hydraulic test rigs. The MB Suspension Component Test Rig (SCTR) enables dynamic simulation of real road excitations and synthesized waveforms, performing industry-standard Force-Velocity and Force-Displacement tests and low speed friction tests, and assessing other NVH and structure-borne noises for comprehensive performance characterization and sound and vibration analyses on a wide variety of chassis components. Our innovative technology uses a combination of dynamic force generation using acoustically quiet linear motors combined with quiet, no-stick-slip air bearings for motion creation – augmented by air springs for compression and curb-height loading. High-frequency closed-loop control of the dynamic response of servomotor acceleration/force systems presents unique challenges.

Testing of the vehicle suspension units and determination of their characteristics is performed on various types of special and universal test rigs. Industrial plants mainly use test rigs that have narrow functionality. They are usually designed for endurance tests of a particular suspension element or suspension unit with the wheel. However, suspension systems development requires universal multifunctional test rigs that would allow to test various types of suspensions and wheels in conditions similar to operational modes of loading. The main structural elements of the rig are horizontal support base, hydro pulsar, vertical post guide  with moving frame  and loads simulating the sprung mass, and winch. In addition, the system comprises a pumping station with a radiator and servo-hydraulic valves, a box for electronic control of the test rig operation modes and for recording the registered parameters. The rig can test hydraulic and gas-filled shock absorbers, coil springs, leaf springs, shock absorbers struts, pneumatic and hydropneumatic springs, wheels and tires, bushings, single-support suspension units with the sprung mass corresponding to the real load on the wheel. 

Q 10.

Vibration/Shimmy/Shake When Driving:Even though vibrations felt in the steering wheel is probably the most common steering system complaints, the problem does not always come from steering system components, so it is important to figure out (quickly) from where the offending vibration originates. A common example of this is a “steering” vibration that only happens while braking. It is wise to look elsewhere for the problem, likely in the front brake rotors.

  • Constantly Stiff Electric Steering:This is one of the few steering problems that does not begin diagnosis by checking fluid levels and curb height. Problems with electric steering systems usually indicate a failure somewhere in the electric power steering system and it takes scan tool and service information to diagnose and repair the vehicle properly. 
  • Electric Steering — Stiff Steering on One Side Only:This problem sounds intimidating but it really is not. If electric steering is stiff only in one direction the usual cause is that the steering system is out of calibration and the usually fix is recalibrating it with the scan tool. Yes, this one really is that simple.
  • Constantly Stiff Hydraulic Steering (Low Assist): Loss of power assist or low assist most often is caused by low power steering fluid level, lack of power steering fluid pressure or actual binding steering or suspension components themselves. It’s simple to check which problem is present. 
  • Leaks on the Driveway or Parking Space: Hydraulic leaks usually come from leaking seals, O-rings or crimps, and from incorrectly topping up the fluid. If the cause of the leak isn’t obvious, cleaning off the area and moving the steering wheel back and forth slowly through its entire range of motion, or road testing the vehicle, should help identify the problem area. 

Q 11.

List of 3 steering system components along with their possible relevant fault and present an analysis of the same:

Axle-beam Suspension Steering System

This steering system incorporates a steering-wheel to impart motion to the steering-box which transfers the steering effort through the drop-arm and drag-link directly to one of the two stub-axles pivoting at the ends of the axle-beam. Both the stub-axles are joined together by a track-rod.


This forged lever-arm is bolted on to a tapered steering-box output rocker-shaft and it hangs or drops downwards. It imparts a circular-arc movement to the drag-link through its swing action.


This tubular rod converts the circular movement of the drop-arm into a linear push or pulls motion of the drag-link arm, attached rigidly to one of the stub-axles. A ball-joint is fitted at each end of the rod so that a relative movement is provided in planes.

List of 3 suspension system components along with their possible relevant fault and present an analysis of the same

  • Springs:This is the most common type of spring and is, in essence, a heavy-duty torsion bar coiled around an axis. Coil springs compress and expand to absorb the motion of the wheels.
  • Shocks: These dampen the vertical motion induced by driving your car along a rough surface and so should technically be referred to by their proper name - dampers. If your car only had springs, it would boat and wallow along the road until you got physically sick and had to get out. It would be a travelling deathtrap until the incessant vibration caused it to fall apart.
  • Struts:A shock absorber on an automobile does one thing and one thing only, keeps the car from bouncing. Struts are considerably different. Struts are a structural part of the suspension system and are mounted to the chassis of the vehicle on the top, and they come down through.

Q 12.

Vehicle State Estimation:

  • Sensors Measurements Specification:
  • Extended Kalman Filters Design for the Smart Car
  • Vehicle Four-Wheel Model

Q 13.

The Negative outcome if the test are not carried out according to workplace procedure and safety requirements are:

This will be considered as the breach of the work health and safety law. There are 3 categories of offences for failing to comply with a health and safety duty under the WHS Act, depending on the degree of seriousness or culpability involved.

Category 1 - the highest penalty under either the WHS Act or the ES Act is for a category 1 offence.

Category 2 - failure to comply with a health and safety duty or electrical safety duty that exposes a person to risk of death, serious injury or illness.

Category 3 - failure to comply with a health and safety duty or electrical safety duty:

  • Corporation: up to $500,000
  • Individual as a PCBU or an officer: up to $100,000
  • Individual for example worker: up to $50,000

Q 14.

Typically, two main areas require constant inspection. These are the rubber to metal components, such as the track control arms, torque rods, ball joints and the shock absorbers.The main function of the suspension system is to maximize the friction between the tyres and road surface whilst steering has the main role of providing stability and good handling.Often when motorists think of vehicle safety and performance, they will automatically think about the braking system and engine. However, the power generated by an engine is useless if the driver cannot control the vehicle. Likewise, the effectiveness of the brakes will be impaired if the suspension is poor.Replace the entire ball joint where the rubber boot is split, cracked, damaged or even missing. Never replace the boot only as this can seal in any damaging substances the joint has been exposed to, resulting in increased dust and corrosion.

Q 15.

Tie rod end damaged boot


  • Use of incorrect tools
  • Contact with oils and fluids or stone impact


  • Premature wear of the joint
  • Internal corrosion
  • Abnormal tyre wear

Steering rack gaiter split


  • General wear and tear
  • Contamination by oils or fluids


  • Possible premature wear of the inner tie rod joint or steering rack
  • Incorrect wheel alignment
  • Abnormal tyre wear

Link stabiliser sheared ball pin


  • Use of incorrect fitting tools (i.e air tools)


  • Inability to fit the part onto the vehicle
  • Premature component failure/damage

Q 16.

Most modern vehicles today contain an on-board computer known as an Engine Control Unit (ECU) which continually monitors the performance of the vehicle. Sensors all around the vehicle report back to the ECU if there are problems such as low fluid levels or increased engine temperature. When an issue is identified the ECU generates an error code. The relevant dashboard warning lights will then be displayed. There are literally hundreds of potential error codes that can only be read by specialist vehicle diagnostic equipment. While a warning light may display on the dashboard alerting you to an issue, a diagnostics check is required to understand the full extent and cause of the problem.

 There is more. The PCM also stores a diagnostic "trouble code" so a service technician has some clue where to look for the problem. Scan tools, used to check these codes, were long the province of professional technicians because they were expensive and dedicated to one manufacturer's vehicles.

Q 17.

The brakes, suspension, and steering systems are all major safety components of any vehicle. If something is going wrong with one of them it can seriously affect the performance and the safety of the car. The time for regularly scheduled lubrication is the best time for front suspension maintenance and ball joint inspection. First look to see that the rubber boots holding the grease inside the ball joint are in good shape. If the boot is torn, or just plain gone, chances are so is the ball joint. If the ball joint is capable of being greased, use only the grease that is recommended for the job. Some ball joints come lubricated for life and are therefore incapable of being greased – the paradox though is that they don't usually live very long.


The job of the suspension system is to maximize the friction between the tires and the road, as well as provide stability to the steering system. There are a number of different suspension systems. The main components of the suspension system are struts, shock absorbers, springs and tires.

The springs help to support the weight of the vehicle, they also maintain ride height, and absorb bumps in the road.

The shocks reduce the up and down motion of the car that is produced when the vehicle hits bumps on the road or highway.

Common reasons for this to happen:

  • Worn Shocks or Struts
  • Uneven Tire Wear
  • Bad Spring Coils
  • Leaking Shocks

Steering System

The steering system takes the rotation of the steering wheel and converts into the swiveling motion of the wheels.

A rack and pinion system uses a gear set that is enclosed in a metal tube. Both ends of the rack protrude from the end of the tube. A tie rod connects to each end of the rack and the pinion gear is attached to a steering shaft. As the steering wheel is turned, the gear spins which moves the rack.

Common reasons for this to happen:

  • Bad Tie Rods
  • Loose Lug Nuts
  • Unbalanced Wheels
  • Steering Gearbox Not Responding or Hard to Steer

Q 18.

The automotive servicing and repairs industry can play an important role in reducing pollution by ensuring that vehicles are operating efficiently and by extending vehicle life through routine maintenance. Minimizing the environmental impact of your operations can be challenging, but many businesses report that improving their environmental performance can reduce operating costs and have other business benefits.

  • Regularly check and clean storm water drains near your workshop to ensure they are free of debris
  • Keep a spill kit close to where spills are likely and ensure all staff know how to use it
  • Keep your premises and equipment clean and well maintained
  • Never dispose of chemicals into storm water drains
  • The Protection of the Environment Operations Act 1997 (POEO Act) is the main piece of NSW environmental legislation covering water, land, air and noise pollution and waste management
  • Keep lids on your bins or store them in a covered area to prevent the wind blowing waste away
  • Separate different kinds of waste for easy collection and recycling
  • By gaining awareness of environmental laws, and how your business has the potential to affect the environment, you will be in a better position to manage risk in your business.
  • Under section 120 of the POEO Act it is illegal to pollute or cause or permit pollution of waters.
  • Air pollution means emitting any impurities into the air, including odors, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), fuel vapors, smoke, dust, gases, fumes and solid particles of any kind.

Q 19.

After the completion of the repair job the tools and equipment are needs checked and store correctly Power tools such as electric drills, saws, sanders and nailers need routine maintenance just like your hand tools. Because of their mechanical and electrical parts, power tools are more susceptible to problems caused by poor maintenance, dust and debris accumulation and general malfunction. The following are some helpful tips on how to clean and properly store your tools. Dust and grime can bring your power tools to a grinding halt if left unchecked over time. Wipe them clean with a rag after every job has been completed and then store them. Deep clean periodically by using a damp cloth. Get into exhausts, intakes, and other hard-to-clean areas with lightly oiled cotton swabs or other slender tools. Keep your power tools protected from dust, moisture and other adverse conditions by storing them properly after use. Keep them in their original cases if possible, or tuck them away in storage drawers or tool chests, preferably in a garage or basement with a moderately controlled climate. This not only protects them, it also keeps them organized so you can easily find the tool you need when you need it. Keep moving parts lubricated for premium performance. Not only does it keep the mechanics of a tool running smoothly, it also decreases the chance of rust developing. While common machine oil is a good choice, consult your owner’s manual to see if the manufacturer recommends or requires a specific type of oil.

Q 20.

Regular maintenance is essential to keep premises, equipment, machines and the work environment safe and reliable. It helps to eliminate workplace hazards. Lack of maintenance or inadequate maintenance can lead to dangerous situations, accidents and health problems.

It is important that a planned maintenance program is in place and that all maintenance work is risk assessed before beginning the task.Every inspection must examine who, what, where, when and how. Pay particular attention to items that are or are most likely to develop into unsafe or unhealthy conditions because of stress, wear, impact, vibration, heat, corrosion, chemical reaction or misuse.

Assessment 2


1. Detail the vehicle and its faults to analyze and evaluate  the following steering and suspension systems in a light vehicle

Steering system

Vehicle used: light vehicle


Faults: The customer has complaint that the steering is not moving lightly as expected.

Suspension system

Vehicle used: light vehicle


Faults: The car suspension is not working properly and as a result noise coming out from the lower suspension panel.

Steering and suspension system

Vehicle used: light vehicle



Assessment task 3: Report

Following are the tools and equipment that have been used for the diagnosis:

Multimeter: Sensors on your car convert temperature and other readings to voltages that the car's computer can understand. This tool lets you check a sensor's output voltage to verify if faulty wiring or a bad part is creating out-of-spec signals that might be the cause of your troubles.

Vacuum-Pressure Gauge: When a car's engine is running poorly, it's usually related to air, fuel, or spark. This tool covers the air department, so you can work through the maze of vacuum lines under-hood to track down a leak or cracked tube that could be throwing things off.

Fuel-Pressure Gauge: The vacuum-pressure gauge can check fuel pressure on a carbureted engine, but modern fuel-injection systems require a dedicated fuel-pressure gauge. In addition, knowing whether the engine is getting enough—or too much—fuel is one of the first steps in automotive troubleshooting.

In order to analyze the root cause, the technician has utilized the tools and equipment in an appropriate manner. The analysis of the issue was done through a systematical approach. The technician has followed a chronological order in order to identify and rectify the issues.

Evaluating faults

Customer Details




Phone Number:

Vehicle details

Registration no







Job no


Engine no

Instruction taken by

Job done by

Issues reported by the customer

The customer has reported that the suspension and steering both are not working properly.


The technician has diagnoses both the sections using effective tools and equipment.

Repair Instruction


Material costing 
































Grand Total